PARIS — The fast-fashion blitzkrieg of the last five years has revolutionized the European retail scene, practically steamrolling independent retailers, according to a new study conducted by France’s Institute Francaise de la Mode, or IFM.

"France, Spain and Germany have been the most affected," explained Evelyne Chaballier, who spearheaded the study. "Distribution channels have concentrated around the fashion-forward chains. The number of independent retailers is in free-fall almost everywhere in Europe."

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